Football Italian – 26 Dec 2016 07:09:05 A psychological analysis of footballers’ actions, emotions and thoughts to help us understand why they do what they do. article Footballers are often described as being “motivated by instinct”.
What do we understand about why we react this way, and why are we motivated by it?
A new paper from the American Psychological Association explores this.
A team of psychologists led by Dr. John P. Dolan and colleagues has found that, despite our innate propensity for survival and attachment to group and individuals, it is also possible to override these instincts and behave in ways that are more likely to benefit us as individuals.
The paper, entitled Why We Do What We Do: Emotion-Motivated Behaviors in Professional Footballers, is published online in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
It is the first time psychologists have explored the question of how we might act as if we were motivated by emotion and not by our own actions.
“We wanted to test whether emotion-motivated behaviors are adaptive and whether this could be explained by how they are influenced by group membership,” said Dolan.
“The answer is yes, they are.”
The researchers studied the responses of 17 male footballers from different teams across six seasons between 2004 and 2016.
They asked the players how they would react to different situations.
They also measured their reactions to various situations, including situations where a competitor’s goal was scored, a goal was missed, a penalty was scored or a shot was blocked.
The goal scored scenario included a goalkeeper and a player who was trying to score the ball.
The shot missed scenario included an opponent attempting to hit the ball with a bat.
The goalie had to make a save and was trying desperately to avoid being hit.
The player had to try to block the ball but the goalkeeper was trying his best to get to it.
In all scenarios, the player with the ball was given the chance to score a goal.
In each case, the goal scorers were given a free kick and they received a free throw.
When the players were given the goal, they were asked to judge whether the player who scored the goal should be awarded a goal, a free pass or a penalty kick.
For the shot missed situation, participants were asked if they would prefer to receive a free or a free-kick.
In addition, participants completed the Emotion Emotion Questionnaire, a psychological test of emotions, which included questions on the frequency of emotions (like happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, boredom and sadness) and the extent to which emotions influence one’s behaviour.
For example, participants who reported the most intense emotions during a situation were more likely than those who were least emotion-laden to prefer receiving a free goal or free pass.
The researchers also asked participants if they were “motivating by instinct” in their actions.
The answer to this question was “yes.”
For example: “I am motivated to make good decisions.”
“I want to avoid a situation where I feel helpless.”
“When faced with a difficult situation, I have the tendency to seek help.”
The participants were also asked whether they were motivated to act out because of their own beliefs or because of an external factor (such as a team’s win or loss).
“I feel like it is the right thing to do,” said one participant.
“It is not my own choice.”
And “I believe that if I do something that benefits me personally, I will do it again.”
“People often say, ‘Football is about winning’, but it is actually about survival,” said Dr. Dameron.
“And we know that, when we’re at our most vulnerable, we have the most powerful instincts, so we tend to react the most.”
For instance, a study published in 2015 found that when people experienced extreme social isolation, they showed the most aggressive and harmful emotions.
When researchers placed the players in an isolated room, they found that the players exhibited the most negative emotions.
The same was true when the researchers forced the players to act in an environment where they would be in danger.
In a similar study published earlier this year, researchers also found that participants were more emotionally unstable when they were under stress than when they had a stress-free environment.
And, when participants were given free kicks in their first match of the season, they reacted more aggressively than they did when they received free passes.
“So what is driving us?
What motivates us?
How do we overcome our instinct to survive?
It is our belief that if we have a good team around us, our survival will be guaranteed,” said P. Andrew Fagan, a psychology professor at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
“I think the next time you have a football game, consider the emotion-driven behavior of the team and players.
And think about how you might respond if you had