When we get our first glimpse of another person, we usually think of someone close to us, or someone who is familiar and familiar, and who we can rely on.
But when we see a name, the brain processes it as if it is a familiar face.
This is called cognitive distortion.
And the brain’s response can cause us to misattribute a person’s personality traits, and to confuse people.
In this book, two neuroscientists from the University of Southern California (USC) and University of California, Irvine (UCLA) analyze a wide variety of evidence to understand the mechanisms behind cognitive distortion and the cognitive consequences of this misattribution.
Cognitive distortion can happen in several ways.
We can be distracted or confused by a name.
We may hear or see a familiar name but think we recognize it only because we hear it spoken by someone who has the same name.
This cognitive distortion may occur in children and in adults who have been exposed to names they have heard in their family or social networks.
Cognitive distortions also occur in people who have never been exposed or whose names have been passed down from their parents.
Cognitive and behavioral therapy are two common approaches for treating cognitive distortions.
We use cognitive therapy because people can be encouraged to acknowledge that their own behavior has been distorted by the names they receive.
We also use cognitive-behavioral therapy to encourage people to recognize that their behavior and the names we receive are distorted.
Cognitive-behaviorally trained therapists can use names as a way to help people to improve their cognitive functioning.
In addition, cognitive-behavioural therapists use names to help them recognize that they are making mistakes in their own thinking and behavior.
Cognitive scientists and psychologists are studying the causes and consequences of cognitive distortions and how they can be prevented.
For example, cognitive psychologists have identified the neural circuitry that underlies the cognitive distortions that occur when people are exposed to a name that they do not recognize.
The brain is the primary processing center of a person, and its circuitry includes the hippocampus, the area of the brain that is involved in memory and learning.
The hippocampus is involved not only in learning but also in processing information that is salient.
The same circuitry that plays a role in recognizing and learning names also is involved when we receive a name we do not remember.
When we receive an unfamiliar name, our brain’s hippocampus is flooded with new connections, and it is unable to recognize the name.
In a study published in 2017 in the journal PLOS One, cognitive neuroscientist James L. Mazzocchi, a UCLA professor, and his colleagues found that people with cognitive-enhancing name-recognition disorders showed less activity in the hippocampus than people without cognitive-disease disorders.
They also found that cognitive-disorder patients showed greater activation in a brain region called the prefrontal cortex, which is involved with cognitive control.
This study shows that name-related distortions in the brain may contribute to cognitive impairment, as well as other psychological symptoms.
The cognitive neurobiologist Daniel Kahneman has also noted that people who do not know the names of others are more likely to think that others have similar personalities.
These findings suggest that name misattributions can contribute to negative affect, and this is especially true for those who are highly sensitive to names.
A study published by the American Psychological Association in 2017 also suggested that people misattribute others’ personalities, particularly when they are strangers.
A group of volunteers in the U.K. and Australia were told that the names “Alice” and “Bob” were the names for the twins who were to be born together.
The volunteers were asked to rate the strangers’ personalities on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating that they were “good” and 10 indicating that “bad” (the equivalent of a 7 or a 9).
The people who had heard the names Alice and Bob were less likely to rate them as being “good,” and they were more likely than the others to rate their friends as being similar to the twins.
In other words, the people who heard the twins’ names were more able to attribute the twins to different personalities than the people with no names who had not heard the name Alice.
Another study published last year in PLOS ONE by neuroscientologist Thomas B. Biederman and his coauthors also found a relationship between name-specific misattributes and negative affect.
They showed that when people heard a name related to a friend’s death or illness, their brain activated in a specific part of the amygdala that detects emotional stress.
They found that this amygdala activation corresponds to a particular part of our brain called the limbic system, which responds to threat.
When they heard the news that the twins had been diagnosed with autism, the amygdala was more active than usual.
The amygdala is important for emotion regulation and for identifying and avoiding dangerous emotions.
When people hear a name associated with a friend or relative’s death